THE GREATEST AIRLIFT IN HISTORY WAS TO BERLIN DUE TO THE BLOCKADE BY THE SOVIET UNION ATTEMPTING TO STARVE THE WESTERN SECTORS OF THE CONQUERED NAZI CAPITOL

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In spite of the claims of President Joe Biden who said the airlift that brought out over 100,000 Americans, allies and Afghans from Kabul due to the disaster he created on the withdrawal of American forces from Afghanistan was the “largest and most difficult in history”, the Berlin Airlift topped it.

Berlin-Airlift-underway-as-residents-wave-to-pilot
Overview-of-Templehof-Airport-Berlin-Germany-with-the-airplanes-lined-up-for-the-Berlin-Airlift.-August 1948. Truman-Library

From the Truman Library:

In 1947 as the Soviet Union pressured Turkey and, through guerrillas, threatened to take over Greece, he asked Congress to aid the two countries, enunciating the program that bears his name–the Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan, named for his Secretary of State, stimulated spectacular economic recovery in war-torn western Europe.

When the Russians blockaded the western sectors of Berlin in 1948, Truman created a massive airlift to supply Berliners until the Russians backed down. Meanwhile, he was negotiating a military alliance to protect Western nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, established in 1949.

AIRLIFT – from Symbol of Freedom

The blockade of West Berlin by the Soviet Union was the first highlight of the Cold War. The Western Allies responded to the blockage of their land and waterways to Berlin with an airlift for supplying the population in west sectors of Berlin. Thus the Western Allies showed their determination to enter into Berlin for freedom and democracy.

Marshall plan, currency reform and blockade

The history began in 1947 with Marshall plan, the US reconstruction aid for war-damaged Europe. USA wanted to provide raw materials, goods and capital as economic aid to help the people – expressly also for German occupation zones, East Central European countries and USSR. It refused the aid programme linked with political demands for its sphere of influence. Thus decisions were taken that deepened the division of Germany by binding the Soviet zone economically to the USSR while the American, British and French zone gained a clear prospects of the foundation of a common western state.

Prerequisite for the Marshall Plan aid was currency reform from the perspective of USA. On 20 June 1948, currency exchange began in the western zones; on 23 June, reform in West Berlin expanded. The Soviet Union responded with a blockade; on the night of 24 June 1948, Soviet troops blocked all the access roads to West Berlin. The gas and power supply from Soviet sector was disconnected. Factories, public facilities and households, even the garrisons of the Allied forces in the west sectors were no longer sufficiently supplied. The Western forces decided to defend their rights in Berlin. At the initiative of the US military governor Lucius D. Clay, “Operation Vittles”, the supply to western sectors of Berlin via air, began on 26 June with the landing of a Douglas C-47 “Skytrain” in Tempelhof.

Operation “Vittles” and “Plainfare”

Between 26 June 1948 and 6 October 1949, with almost 278,000 flights, more than 2.3 million tons of freight was transported: Food, coal, machines, equipment and other goods of daily need for the supply of 2.1 million people in West-Berlin. Despite the enormous quantity, the food and fuel rations were marginal. They could be increased within the scope of the low border traffic thanks to the help of relatives, friends and colleagues in East Berlin. After 11 May 1949, the day on which the Soviet Union lifted the blockade around midnight, airlift was continued with up to 1000 landings per day in order to fill the storage warehouse in case of further hindrances in accessing Berlin.

Even passenger transport in west zones was no longer functioning. 240000 people departed from or reached West-Berlin by plane. These included 5536 Jewish “Displaced Persons”, who were brought from Tempelhof to Frankfurt am Main via the morning flight during the last week of July 1948.

On 28 June 1948, even the British Army included their relief flights under the name “Operation Plainfare”. Every two to three minutes, an aircraft now landed on one of the three West Berlin airports. Tempelhof in the American sector was the main airport for the airlift. Together with the Gatow airfield, majority of all flights were operated here. The Tegel airport in the French sector, opened on 1 December 1948, ranked number three.

The aircrafts used the northern and southern air corridor in the direction of Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main for outbound flights and the north and south route from the direction of Hamburg and Hannover to Berlin for the return flight. Different flight attitudes were determined for different types of aircrafts, which flew with different speeds. If pilots were unable to immediately succeed in landing in Berlin, they had to fly back fully loaded because the cycle of take-offs and landings could not be differently complied with.

Even passenger transport in west zones was no longer functioning. 240000 people departed from or reached West-Berlin by plane. These included 5536 Jewish “Displaced Persons”, who were brought from Tempelhof to Frankfurt am Main via the morning flight during the last week of July 1948. They were survivors of Nazi concentration and extermination camps and were found as refugees after the anti-Semite persecutions in Poland and the Soviet Union establishment in two American reception camps in Berlin. By the mid of September, American aircrafts flew another around 220 Displaced Persons from Tempelhof from the Wittenau camp in the French sector, which was also dissolved.

On the way to continuous duty

In the beginning, USA provided only a small fleet of 32 Douglas C-47 “Skytrain”, a two-motor relatively slow aircraft, which could bring in supplies via maximum 12 flights daily because food and relief goods were far from enough. USA began to add four-motor Douglas C-54 “Skymaster” to Douglas C-47. On 16 July, 110 aircrafts of the type Skytrain, 54 of the type Skymaster as well as around 100 British aircrafts were already being used. By autumn, C-47 were stopped and replaced by C-54.

There were shortages of personnel as well. To carry out flights according to the plan, shifts had to be drastically extended. Sorties of 36 hours and more were not rare. Pilots were trained and freight handlers were recruited from the Berlin population in USA. The number of flights and the volume of goods could be obtained daily from newspapers. New records were reached and reset when unloading and refuelling. The daily best decorated the fuselage.

On 12 August 1948, 707 flights brought 4,724 tons of freight; for the first time more than the intended 4,500 tons. On 18 February 1949, the millionth ton reached Berlin. On 26 February, 902 sorties catered 8,000 tons. “Easter Parade” was the highlight on 16 April 1949:  Within 24 hours, 12,940 tons of freight was flown in 1398 flights; an aircraft landed every 63 seconds. On 2nd July, the two millionth ton was unloaded. MORE

THE BIG LIFT

Filmed on location, The Big Lift is a reenactment of the Berlin airlift of 1948. Flexing their postwar muscles, the Russians blockade the Western sector, refusing to allow the Allies to ship supplies to the starving Berliners. From their headquarters at Templehof Airport, a group of courageous American flyers risks their lives to transport supplies by air.

The Big Lift is a true account of the Berlin Airlift, which provided food and supplies to the Western sector of Berlin during the Soviet’s blockade of Berlin. Sgt. Danny MacCullough (Montgomery Clift) and his friend Sgt. Hank Kowalski (Paul Douglas) are among the Americans called upon to risk their lives to transport supplies to the desperate citizens. The grim war is soon left behind as budding romances emerge between two women and the soldiers. Director George Seaton filmed on location with actual military personnel in minor acting roles, making The Big Lift one of the most remarkable war films of all time. Director: George Seaton Writer: George Seaton Starring: Montgomery Clift, Paul Douglas, Cornell Borchers, Bruni Löbel, O.E. Hasse, Dante V. Morel

Report Draft, The Berlin Crisis, Research Project Number 17, Department of State

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